-, Gezondheidszorg in Malawi. In:

African Development Bank, Malawi Bank Group Country Strategy Paper 2018-2022, Country Economics Department, Directorate General – South Malawi Country Office, October 2018

African Development Bank, Regional Economic Outlook 2019 - Southern Africa, 04-Apr-2019

Afro Barometer, Centre for Social Research: Most Malawians believe in the existence of witchcraft and support criminalising it. In:, 2022

Aragie, Emerta; Pauw, Karl; Pernechele, Valentina: Achieving food security and industrial development, Working Paper 15, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2016

Baijukya, Frederick; Lydia Wairegi; Ken Giller; Shamie Zingore; Regis Chikowo and Paul Mapfumo: Maize-legume cropping systems, CAB International, 2016

Bandawe, Chiwoza J., Med.: A synopsis of the field of health education in Malawi. In: Malawi Medical Journal, 2009 Dec., p. 159-162

Baudeon, Frédéric; Mwanza, Herbert M.; Triomphe, Bernard; Bwalya, Martin: Conservation agriculture in Zambia: a case study of Southern Province, African Conservation Tillage Network, Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007 ISBN9966721932

Bouman, T.I., a.o.: Adapting yet not adopting? Conservation agriculture in Central Malawi, 2021. (

Carr, Stephen; Hanna Kool (Editor); K.E. Giller (Editor): Surviving on half a hectare of land : an introduction to the Issues surrounding smallholder farming in Malawi, 2017, ISBN9789463436076

Castel, Vincent; Phiri, Martha; Stampini, Marco: Education and Employment in Malawi, African Development Bank, Working Paper No. 110, June 2010

Chasukwa, Michael; Banik, Dan: Bypassing Government : Aid Effectiveness and Malawi’s Local Development Fund. In: Politics and Governance (ISSN: 2183–2463) 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 103–116 DOI: 10.17645/pag.v7i2.1854

Coleman, G., MA.: Some implications of international labour migration from Malawi, Chanceliok College, Universiteit of Malawi. In: African Geographical Review, No.12, April 1974, p. 97-101

Commonwealth network: Malawi: Find Industry and Manufacturing expertise in Malawi

Davis, Kristin; Kazembe, Cynthia; Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan: Primary Agricultural Cooperatives in Malawi : Structure, Conduct, and Performance, Strategy Support Program, International Food Policy Research Institute and Government of Flanders, Working Paper 41, May 2023

De Volkskrant: Hoe voeden we 10 miljard monden in 2050. De beste artikelen van de Voedselzaak gebundeld, zie

De Weerdt, Joachim; Diao,Xinshen; Duchoslav, Jan;  Ellis, Mia; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James: Malawi’s Agrifood System, Structure and Drivers of Transformation, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Country Brief 8, June 2023,

Dinkelman, Taryn; Martine Mariotti: The long run effects of labor migration on human capital formation in communities of origin. Working Paper 22049, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016

Dorward, Andrew; Chirwa, Ephraim: Strategic Options for Agriculture and Development in Malawi, International Food Policy Research Institute, Working Paper 13, March 2015

Douglas, M.G.; S.K. Mughogho; A.R. Saka; T.F. Shaxson and G. Evers: An investigation into the presence of a cultivation hoe pan under smallholder farming conditions, Malawi Government, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Food and Agriculture, Organization of the United Nations, Rome

Dullie L.; Meland E.; Hetlevik Ø., et al: Performance of primary care in different healthcare facilities : a cross-sectional study of patients’ experiences in Southern Malawi. In: BMJ Journals, July 18, 2019

Ecker, Olivier; Qaim, Matin: Analyzing Nutritional Impacts of Policies, Development Strategy and Governance Division, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01017: An Empirical Study for Malawi, August 2010

Engler, Steven; Kretzer, Michael M., Agriculture and Education : Agricultural Education as an Adaptation to Food Insecurity in Malawi. In: Universal Journal of Agricultural Research 2(6): p. 224-231, 2014

Engler, Steven; Michael Kretzer: Agriculture and Education : Agricultural Education as an Adaptation to Food Insecurity in Malawi. In: Universal Journal of Agricultural Research 2(6): 224-231, 2014

Fox, Louise; Kaul, Upaasna: The evidence is in : How should youth employment programs in low-income countries be designed?, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.22191.84649, 2017

Goris, Gie: De dunne lijn tussen hulp en macht. In: MO, dossiers Vlaanderen-Zuidelijk-Afrika, d.d. 7 september 2017

Govaerts, Bram; Jelle T. van Loon; Lennart Woltering; Timothy J. Krupnik; Frédéric Baudron; Maria Boa: Scaling agricultural mechanization services in smallholder farming systems. Case studies from sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. In: Agricultural Systems 180 (2020) 102792

Government of Malawi: Malawi National Human Development Report 2021, Delivering Sustainable Human Development and Accountability at the Local Level : The Experience of Decentralisation in Malawi, 2021

Government of Malawi: The Fifth Integrated Household Survey (LHS5) 2020, Report, Published by National Statistical Office, November 2020

Government of the Republic of Malawi: Health Sector Strategic Plan II (2017-2022)

Hebinck, Paul: Afrika’s probleem is niet Afrika zelf, maar zij die zich ermee bemoeien. In: de Volkskrant, maart 2018 : De Voedselzaak,

Hoogmoed, W.B.; P.A Stevens; S. Muliokela: Tillage with Animal Draught in Zambia, International Soil Tillage, Research Organisation Conference Conservation, Soil Technology Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

International Labour Organization (ILO): In Malawi, bolstering youth and women's employment through sectoral skills strategies, (article), 12 June 2019

International Labour Organization: Skills for Trade and Economic Diversification : Malawi's Oilseed and Horticulture Sectors, ISBN: 9789221285250; 9789221285267, 2016

Javdani, Marie S.: Stop the bleeding, heal the wound : the role of fertilizer subsidies in food security, Zomba district, University of Oregon, September 2009

Jong, Folkert de: Stop met liefdadigheid! Stichting Mischa, Utrecht

Jonsson, Lars-Ove; Emanuel Mawenya and Johan Rockström: Conservation tillage : Management practices for animal drawn systems in Tanzania, Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA)

Kamanga, B.: Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi, 2011, ISBN9789461730046

Kamanga, Bernard C.G.: Understanding the Farmer’s Agricultural Environment in Malawi, CIMMYT-Malawi, Bunda College of Agriculture, Lilongwe, Malawi

Kamangira, David Kondwani Makoko; Grace Timanyechi Munthali and Lawrent Pungulani: Status of Agricultural Innovations, Innovation Platforms and Innovations Investment 2015 PARI project country report: Republic of Malawi. Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), Accra Ghana. (2016)

Kapako, A: Change in Malawi, irrigation scheme farmers tending to their tomato field, Malawi, 2019

Kasalu-Coffin, Esther: Rationale for IFAD involvement and relevance to the East and Southern Africa region, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 2011, ISBN9789290722625, 2011

Kumwenda, W.F.: Animal-drawn implement supply, distribution and services in Malawi, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Chitedze Research Station, Malawi.

Lameck, Masina: Malawian Migrant Workers Returned from South Africa Get Training. In: Voanews, 2019

Maggio, G.; Sitko, N. & Ignaciuk, A.: Cropping system diversification in Eastern and Southern Africa : Identifying policy options to enhance productivity and build resilience, FAO Agricultural Development, Economics Working Paper 18-05, Rome, 2018

Makwero, Martha: Delivery of primary health care in Malawi. In: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, June 2018

Malawi Food Security Outlook October 2021 to May 2022: Forecast average rainfall for 2021/2022 is likely to result in a third consecutive favorable harvest. In: Fews Net, October 2021

Malawi’s Health and Educational Systems: zie

Malcolm, Alison: Second Chances : A Study of Rural Malawian Youth in a Complementary Basic Education Programme, A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Graduate Department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto, 2009

Mapila, Salim: A Cost-Benefit Analysis : Improving industrialisation and youth employment in Malawi, Policy Brief, July 2021

Matabwe, Matilda, Dr.; Umar, Lawal, Aliyu: Effects of Youth Unemployment in Malawi, University Honolulu, Hawaii, 2021

Mbizwo, Alphonce: Harnessing Malawi’s Youth Bulge. In: African Thinker, d.d. 1 juli 2020

Millennium Villages Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to the Millennium Villages Approach, Version 1.0 June 18, 2008, The Earth Institute of Columbia University (EI)

Ministry of Education, 2021 Malawi Education Statistic Report : Education Management Information Systems (EMIS), 2021

Mkwambisi David; Muyanga, Milu; Wassihun, Amedie; Makocho, Paul; Lifeyo, Yanjanani; Khomba, James K.: Manufacturing and Industrialization in Malawi : Trends, Opportunities, and Strategies, MwAPATA Institute, Working Paper No. 20/06, 2020

Mlangeni, Angstone Thembachako (Corresponding author): Investigating Agriculture Teacher Shortage in Secondary Schools in Malawi’, NR Department, NRC Campus, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR), Malawi, 2015

Moyo, Dambisa: Is ontwikkelingshulp verantwoordelijk voor de armoede in Afrika? In: MO, nummer 33, september 2009

Mpaka, Charles: Jeugdige migratie ondermijnt de landbouw in Malawi. In: MO 18 augustus 2020

Munk, Nina: The idealist, Jeffrey Sachs and the quest to end poverty, Doubleday, 2013, ISBN9780385525817

Muriaas, Ragnhild, a.o.: Findings on Education, The Institute for Public Opinion and Research (Malawi), University of Gothenburg, 2016

Mwamukonda, Jireh: Harnessing Malawi’s Youth Bulge. In: Project Syndicate, d.d. 6 juni 2020

Mwanza, Herbert M.: Conservation Agriculture in Zambia, Investment Centre Division, ACT Southern Africa Sub-Regional Coordinator, September 2011

Nelson, Valerie; Richard Lamboll and Miriam Joshua: Farmer Field Schools to strengthen community resilience to climate change, Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, February 2020

Petit, Jan: Persoonlijke ervaringen

Ravensbergen, A.P.P.: A trade-off analysis of integrating legumes in East- African maize cropping systems : a meta-analysis on maize common bean and maize pigeon pea intercrops in Kenya and Tanzania, Thesis Wageningen University, 2018

Republic of Malawi, Ministry of Forestry and Natural Resources: The third National Communication of the Republic of Malawi to the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Lilongwe, January 2021

Republic of Malawi, Updated Nationally Determined Contributions, July 2021

Rurinda, Jairos: Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe, Thesis Committee appointed by the Academic Board to be defended in public Wageningen University, 2014, ISBN 9789461739605

Sachs, Jeffrey: The end of poverty, economic possibilities for our time, Penguin-books, 2005, ISBN9780141018669

Santorri, Chamley: Malawi's youth unemployment crisis. In: The Guardian, 10 Jun. 2013

Sengupta, Somini: Meet the climate hackers of Malawi. In: The New York Times, d.d. 27.04.2023

Sukkel, W., Ir. en Pulleman, M. Dr.: Sustainable soil management soil organic matter conservation agriculture subsoilcompaction, Government Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation Malawi [Ook verschenen als Bodemverbeterende landbouw, januari 2006]

Thierfelder, Christian, a.o.: Maize-based conservation agriculture systems in Malawi : Long-term trends in productivity, 2013

Thierfelder, Christian: Conservation agriculture in maize-legume systems. Technology Brief d.d. February 2021. (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)

Tolani, Emmanuel: Youth on the Move: Welfare effects on originating households in Malawi, A Policy Brief, May 2019

Towela, Munthali: European Union Supports Farmers to Fight-off : Effects of Climate, FAO Regional Office for Africa

United Nations Development Programme, 2021, National Planning Commission (NPC) [Malawi], Malawi’s Vision : An Inclusively Wealthy and Self-reliant Nation, Malawi 2063, 2020

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: TEVET Malawi, No. 63599 2019

University of Gothenburg, The Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI) Survey of Malawi : Selected Findings on Education, Report 2016:6, November 2016

USAID, From the American People, Malawi, Education : challenges in the education landscape : Education Program Overview

USAID, from the American People: Globel Health, Malawi

Vos, Carlijne, Zolang landen hun eigen honger stillen ten koste van Afrika, verandert er niks. In: de Volkskrant: De Voedselzaak, zie

Vugt, Daniel van, Dr.: Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop production on smallholder farms in Malawi, 2018, ISBN9789463433211

Waddington, Hugh; Birte Snilstveit; Jorge Hombrados; Martina Vojtkova; Daniel Phillips; Philip Davies; Howard White: Farmer Field Schools for Improving Farming Practices and Farmer Outcomes : A Systematic Review, Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2014

Weide, Berend van der: Over het fietsambulance project : focus op de logistiek van de gezondheidszorg in Malawi, Stichting Transport4transport, (

Wittenberg, Dick: Zo ontsnap je aan armoede in het armste land ter wereld. In: de Correspondent, d.d. 5 september 2015

World Bank of Malawi: Review, last updated Apr 07, 2022

World Bank: The Education System in Malawi : Africa education country status report, World Bank working paper, no.182, 2010,

World Health Organization: Country Cooperation Strategy at glance, Malawi